After conducting the above research I felt that I hadn’t quite understood the contextual study point. I was considering my research quite basic and not very in depth. I returned to the course material and realised that I hadn’t even discussed what it had asked me to. ‘Reflect on how collage as a medium might be very well place to connect with ideas contemporary collaboration, networks and ecologies’. This was something that I had definitely not considered in my research and was something that I needed to address. Before going onto the internet, as I normally do and dive straight in, I took some time to think about any artists that I had researched so far that take part in collaboration. In part 1 I researched two artists, brothers, named Jake and Dinos Chapman. These two artists worked together creating mythical, surreal creatures based on the game of ‘consequences’.
Consequences is game in which players draw in turn on a sheet of paper, fold to hide what they done and then pass it onto the next player. This game has come from the term ‘Cadavre Exquis’ which is a collaborative drawing approach first used by surrealist artists to create bizarre and intuitive drawing. (All this research seems to be starting to build a picture of what I am leaning towards with my own ideas and work).
The chapman brothers collaborated to use the game and emphasis the dual nature of their work together exploring difference within a unit – a family unit?! They claimed that the work in the project would originate from the p point of view or conversation. So drawings showing the subconscious, the conversation of your day as your drawing it? Maybe I could do this with Aaron, every day for a week we sit down and talk about our days but draw as we are speaking.
After looking on a fellow students blog it seems that she has simply researched the BCC only so I am content with what I have been able to find. I am really keen to explore this idea of these artists works.
I have never completed any research on Rauschenberg and for this part of the course it seemed to be silly not to look into his work and keep him in mind for further projects.
I came across his work named ‘Almanac’ with was a mixed media piece involving screen prints. Along with his own photographs, he would print screen images from books and magazines onto the canvas and then apply various brushstrokes in the style of abstract expressionism. He wanted ‘to escape the familiarity of objects and collage.’ The images for this piece are arranged in a loose, poetic manner, creating ‘an impression of visual flux’ that allows the viewer to associate with the painting freely. (Tate, 2018)
I went on to look at further works by Rauschenberg and came across further screenprints and lithographs. ‘Lithography is a printing process that uses a flat stone or metal plate on which the image areas are worked using a greasy substance so that the ink will adhere to them by, while the non-image areas are made ink-repellent’ (Tate, 2018)
Further research into Robert Rauschenberg led me to discover a website called ‘Rauschenberg Foundation’. I started to notice that his work was very much related to his travels and he gathered imagery, objects and inspiration from all over the world. It is said on the website that ‘Rauschenberg’s belief in the power of art as a catalyst for positive social change was at the heart of his participation in numerous international projects’. He collaborated with papermakers in France, India and China in the 1970s. With his collection of objects and cultural influences his works resulted in a new understanding for other cultures. (Rauschenberg Foundations, 2018)
Between 1984 and 1991 Rauschenberg financed a project called ‘Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange (ROCI) which consisted of him travelling to 10 countries exploring the diverse cultures and local art making practices. This project was his long term commitment to human rights and freedom of artistic expression. He produced an exhibition of his work in each country, often where artistic experimentation was suppressed. His purpose for these exhibitions was to get people talking about creative processes and bring a mutual understanding within art. I always thought Rauschenberg was more of a political campaigner and I guess he was in some respects with fighting for freedom of art but I’m beginning to learn that he wanted people to join and celebrate the freedom of expression through art, something which he strongly believed in. (Rauschenberg Foundations, 2018)
After reading about his screen prints and use of photography and layering in his work I looked into transferring drawings. I remember when I was at university and a friend showed me how I could transfer an image that had been printed onto another surface, with water. I couldn’t remember the complete process so I decided to look it up and found that Rauschenberg’s processes were quite clearly linked. In 1952, 1958-68 Rauschenberg completed some work with transfer drawings. He recycled ‘an American collective memory into alternative narratives that are disengaged from history’. The drawings have been described as ‘ethereal’. The drawings reclaim scraps of printed media combined with hand-drawn and painted passages to make pictorial poems that reflect the excesses of contemporary visual culture. The outcome of these transfer drawings create a ‘flicker with varying degrees of visibility’. It is hard to see the complete transferred image, but I like that effect as it creates a sense of confusion and history to the drawing being made. (Rauschenberg Foundations, 2018)
I found a further work by Rauschenberg where he had used a process called ‘photogravure’. The image produced was similar to that of a transfer drawing/print but even more ghostly. (Rauschenberg Foundations, 2018)
noun: photogravure; plural noun: photogravures
- an image produced from a photographic negative transferred to a metal plate and etched in.
- the production of photogravure images.
I listened to and read a short discussion about one of Rauschenberg’s works called Mirthday Man. For this piece Rauschnberg had printed digitised images on transparnets sheets with a large inkjet printer, which meant that he could then transfer the images onto a support using sponges or rags. At the centre of this piece is a full scale x-ray of his body. He called this ‘a portrait of an inner man’. To me this image portrays a self portrait. The ghostly feel it has to it and the layered images creates a sense of documentation of his interests and to me tells a story, or it would seem that way due to the central image of his full body x ray. (MOMA, 2018)
Quite a few techniques involved in this work here. I see it as a type of self portrait and it would be interesting for me to explore with this. I Would like to experiment with some of these ideas. Experiment digitally and with sponging etc. like Rauschenberg did before moving onto my next exercise. Quite excited by this.
Tate. (2018) Robert Rauschenberg. At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/rauschenberg-almanac-t01135 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Tate. (2018) Lithography. At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/l/lithography (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Rauschenberg Foundations. (2018) International Collaborations. At: https://www.rauschenbergfoundation.org/artist/international-collaborations-1973–95 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Rauschenberg Foundations. (2018) Transfer Drawings. https://www.rauschenbergfoundation.org/art/lightboxes/transfer-drawings (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Rauschenberg Foundations. (2018) Rotary Drive. https://www.rauschenbergfoundation.org/art/artwork/rotary-drive-ground-rules (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
MOMA (2018) Robert Rauschenberg: Among Friends. At: https://www.moma.org/audio/playlist/40/663 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Tate. Exquisite Corpse. At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/c/cadavre-exquis-exquisite-corpse (Accessed on 30 June 2018)
Figure 1. Rauschenberg, R. (1962) Almanac. [oil paint, acrylic paint and screen print on canvas] At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/rauschenberg-almanac-t01135 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 2. Rauschenberg, R. (1965) Lawn. [lithograph on paper] At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/rauschenberg-lawn-p77581 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 3. Rauschenberg, R. (1962) Street Sounds. [screenprint on paper] At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/rauschenberg-street-sounds-l01844 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 4. Rauschenberg, R. (1968) Water Stop. [lithograph on paper] At: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/rauschenberg-water-stop-p07444 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 5. Rauschenberg, R. (1952) Untitled (Mirror) [Solvent transfer with oil, watercolour, crayon, pencil and paper on paper] At: https://www.rauschenbergfoundation.org/art/artwork/untitled-mirror (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 6. Rauschenberg, R. (1955) Untitled (Gold Painting) [Gold leaf on fabric, newspaper, and glue on canvas, in wood-and-glass frame] At: https://www.rauschenbergfoundation.org/art/artwork/untitled-gold-painting-2 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 7. Rauschenberg, R. (1997) Rotary Drive. [photogravure] At: https://www.rauschenbergfoundation.org/art/artwork/rotary-drive-ground-rules (Accessed on 13 August 2018)
Figure 8. Chapman, J and Chapman, D. (2000) Exquisite Corpse. [Etching on paper] At: http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/chapman-exquisite-corpse-p78455 (Accessed on 30 June 2018)
Figure 9. Rauschenberg, R. (1997) Mirthday Man. [Collage] At: https://www.moma.org/audio/playlist/40/663 (Accessed on 13 August 2018)